Illustrated by Kazuhiro Kawakita

whistleは「口笛」あるい「ホイッスル」。blow a whistleで「ホイッスルを鳴らす」。不定冠詞のaを定冠詞のtheに替えて、blow the whistleとすると「悪事をばらす」という慣用表現になる。whistleblowerは「悪事をばらす人」で、特定組織の関係者が内部の不正や犯罪を告発する場合に、「内部告発者」と訳される。カタカナ読みは「ホイッスルブロゥアー」。
世界のジャーナリズム界で最近もっとも注目を集めているのが、“self-described whistleblower organization”(自称内部告発組織)のWikiLeaks. org。ニューヨーク・タイムズ(2010年7月25日付)は“In Disclosing Secret Documents, WikiLeaks Seeks ‘Transparency’”(ウィキリークスは機密文書の公開に〝透明性〟を求める)と報じた。
7月25日には、アフガニスタンでの軍事作戦に関する機密文書など約7万6000点を公開。アサーンジ氏は記者会見し、“(I believe that)  ‘thousands’ of U.S. attacks in Afghanistan could be investigated for evidence of war crimes.”(アフガニスタンにおける米軍の数千の攻撃は、戦争犯罪の証拠として調査可能だと信じる)と述べた。一方、米軍は、WikiLeaksに機密情報を漏えいした容疑で、元情報分析官のブラッドリー・マニングを拘留し取り調べているという(AP通信)。
whistleblowing(内部告発)は、社会的正義に基づく行為と見なされる一方で、告発された側からは組織を裏切る“snitch”(告げ口、密告)と非難されて、しばしば報復の対象となる。そこで、米政府には、順法精神による内部告発者を不当な報復から守る“Whistleblower Protection Act”(内部告発者保護法、1989)などの法律があるが、現実は、内部告発をする方もされる方も〝食うか食われるか〟の闘いである。
ところで、米証券取引委員会(SEC)はこのほど、ヘッジファンドのインサイダー取引事件にからんで、内部告発者の女性に100万㌦の報奨金を支払った、と発表した。女性は、ヘッジファンドにインサイダー情報を流したIT企業社員の元妻で、離婚後に新たな夫と一緒に〝内部告発〟。SECはそれに基づいて立件し、ヘッジファンド側から2800万㌦の罰金を徴収したという。内部告発は、本来個人的な利益を追求するものではない筈だが、ウォール街では“How to Make a Million: Become a Whistleblower”(100万㌦の儲け方、内部告発者になる)の見出しが、注目を集めている。The Sankei Shimbun  (August 16 2010)

PS : White House Issues Cybersecurity Order To Deter Classified Leaks

The Obama administration issued an executive order Friday aimed at preventing the leak of classified data from government computer networks.

But while some experts said the directive calls for important cybersecurity improvements, others said the mandate was long overdue and the government needed to do more to prevent another disclosure of sensitive information like the classified documents released to the whistleblower site WikiLeaks.

"This is not transformative," said Stewart Baker, a former assistant secretary for policy at the Department of Homeland Security. "We're not going to get security on our networks if we wait for disaster and then fix the things that caused the disaster."

The order, which concludes a seven-month review of how the government protects classified data, establishes a task force led by the attorney general and the director of national intelligence to deter "insider threats," or the disclosure of government secrets by its own employees. It also creates a special committee that reports to the president on the progress being made to protect classified information and requires officials from each agency to oversee the protection of sensitive data.

The White House directive was issued in response to the disclosure of hundreds of thousands of sensitive government documents last year by WikiLeaks. In May 2010, Army Pfc. Bradley Manning was arrested on suspicion of leaking the documents, which included more than 250,000 confidential State Department cables, video of a deadly U.S. helicopter attack and logs pertaining to the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. In April, he was transferred to a medium-security prison unit at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas, where he is awaiting trial.

After the Wikileaks disclosure, national security staff created a committee to recommend policies for reducing the risk of another breach of classified information, the White House said. Since then, the government has made "significant progress" in securing government computer systems, such as limiting the number of people allowed to use removable media like flash drives and limiting access to classified networks, the White House said.

The goal of the effort was, "to ensure that we provide adequate protections to our classified information while at the same time sharing the information with all who reasonably need it to do their jobs," the White House said in a statement.(http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/07/)

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